UK doctoral degrees are at level 8 of the Higher Education Qualifications Framework and are postgraduate qualifications under the Bologna Process. All doctoral degrees include „original research or other advanced sciences” that demonstrate „the creation and interpretation of new knowledge.”  The use in former universities is not in line with the Bologna Framework or Process. The former universities of England (Oxford and Cambridge) award a master`s degree, which is not a substantive qualification, but reflects the old practice of these universities of promoting BA to MA (and thus full university degree) a few years after graduation (see Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin)). Scotland`s former universities award a bachelor`s degree (see Scottish MA) instead of a BA. In order for students to obtain a Master`s degree in line with the framework of these former English universities, they created the MSt (Master of Studies) to remedy this anomaly and distinguish the degrees, the two Masters. Some postgraduate degrees at Oxford are called bachelor`s degrees. However, these are master`s qualifications. Integrated Master entry degrees are offered with distinction and can therefore be added after the abbreviation of the diploma (hons). These are substantial master`s degrees that integrate bachelor`s and master`s studies, with the final qualification at the same level as a postgraduate master`s degree.  Most British bachelor`s degrees are honorary degrees and are identified by „(Hons)” after the abbreviation of the degree. A student who achieves a grade below the honour standard may receive a „regular degree” or a „successful degree” and cannot add „(Hons)”. There is an international (but not universal) custom whereby certain degrees are called „.
der Philosophie”. Examples are BPhil (Bachelor of Philosophy), MPhil (Master of Philosophy) and PhD or DPhil (Doctor of Philosophy). Most recipients of these degrees have not earned an honours degree in academic philosophy – the degree is available for almost the full range of disciplines. The origins lie in the ancient practice of considering all fields of study as elements of „philosophy” with its Greek meaning „friend of wisdom”. Thus, holders of an MPhil degree can have obtained it in any academic discipline. Conversely, some bachelor`s degrees in the `higher faculties` of older UK universities (e.g. arts other than arts at Oxford and Cambridge) are postgraduate degrees (e.g. BCL and BMus at Oxford). Many have been converted into corresponding master`s degrees (e.g. BSc is now MSc at Oxford), but only in the last generation.
The BD (Bachelor of Divinity) remains a graduate degree at some universities (e.g. Oxford, Cambridge, St. Andrews and until recently Durham) but is at most a bachelor`s degree (e.g. London, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Glasgow). If you studied law in London Abbr. Crossword puzzles Clues Looking for answers and solutions, then you`ve come to the right place. This crossword puzzle was last seen today on Daily Themed Crossword Puzzle. If you`re stuck and looking for help, this is the place to be, as we`ve just published the answer below. You can use the search function in the right sidebar to search for another crossword hint and the answer will appear immediately. It is customary to put the name of the awarding institution in parentheses after the abbreviation of the diploma, e.g. BA (Lond).
For a list of standard abbreviations for UK universities, see Universities in the United Kingdom § Post-nominal abbreviations. Bachelor`s degrees in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science, while studying at the undergraduate level, are longer study programmes and are considered master`s qualifications as part of higher education qualifications and second cycle qualifications under the Bologna Process.  Primary qualifications in medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine are considered bachelor`s degree programs and referred to as bachelor`s degrees, but are generally offered without distinction.  Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery graduates are still considered together as the leading medical qualification in the UK, equivalent to the US MD. Due to the flexibility of Latin word order, there are two schools in the abbreviation for doctorates. The two former universities of England are divided on this point: at Cambridge, D follows the faculty (e.g. PhD, LittD), while at Oxford D precedes the faculty (e.g. DPhil, DLitt). Most universities in the UK have followed Oxford for higher doctorates, but have followed international precedents in using the doctorate for doctorate in philosophy and professional doctorates. Note that the following lists include historical degrees that may not currently be offered at UK universities. The frameworks for higher education qualifications of UK degree-granting bodies define five levels of qualification with the title of a degree: Foundation (not in Scotland), Ordinary and Honours Bachelor (separate levels only in Scotland), Master and Doctorate.
These concern specific outcome-oriented descriptors and are linked to the Bologna Process.  Some of the following degrees are postgraduate degrees at some universities, but are usually bachelor`s degrees. Already the solution to study law in London Fig. Crossword puzzle clue? Click here to return to the main article and find more answers Daily crossword puzzles June 4, 2021 Answers.