19th-century jurists sometimes identified the law of the land with the common law, to the exclusion of other laws.  However, by allowing an alternative to grand jury review in Hurtado, the Court allowed for procedural reform that departed from the common law. The court said the law of the land in each state should respect the „fundamental principles of liberty and justice.”  Judges and lawyers have said for many centuries that the term „law of the land” refers to specific legal requirements. For example, William Bereford, judge of the common pleas, stated in 1308 that the „law of the land” then in force required that a tenant be summoned by two summonses to appear. In 1550, John Pollard, serjeant-at-law and later Speaker of the House of Commons, stated that striking and wounding a man was generally „contrary to the law of the land” (exceptions provided).  In the eighteenth century, the English jurist William Blackstone also wrote that the law of the land „does not depend on the arbitrary will of a judge; But it is permanent, firm and immutable, unless it is an authority of Parliament. Im England of the 17. In the nineteenth century, Lord Coke wrote that unless the common law „is repealed or amended by Parliament, it remains…”  He also stated that Parliament`s power and competence are „so transcendent and absolute that they cannot be limited to causes or persons within any boundary” and that even Magna Carta would not preclude subsequent laws. that contradict this great Charter.   The term law of the land is a legal term corresponding to the Latin lex terrae or legem terrae in the accusative.
 It refers to all laws in force in a country or region,, including law and judicial law.  „The Law of the Land. Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/the%20law%20of%20the%20land. Retrieved 14 January 2022. In 1606, Lord Coke likened the term to due process: „But by the law of the land. For the true meaning and explanation of these words, see the Statute of 37 ed. 3 chap. 8 where, according to the law of the land, words are rendered without due process.
 Justice Powys also stated in 1704: „By 28 Ed. 3.c.3. there the words lex terrae, which are written in Mag. Char. are used by the words „due process”; And the importance of the law is that all obligations must be made by a legal authority.  This term was used in 1787 to draft the Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution, which states: „This Constitution and such laws of the United States as may be passed thereunder; and all treaties concluded or to be concluded under the authority of the United States shall be the supreme law of the land.  The primacy clause is the only place in the Constitution where this very term has been used. The law of the land, embodied in the United States The Constitution as due process includes all the legal and fair rules that define the rights and duties of man and ensure their protection and enforcement both between the State and its citizens and between citizens.
British Chief Justice John Fineux declared in 1519 that „the law of God and the law of the land are all one” in that they both protect the public good.   British Chief Justice John Vaughan added in 1677 that whenever the law of the land declares by a legal act what divine law is, the courts must consider that legislation to be correct.   In 1855, the U.S. Supreme Court stated, „The words `due process` should undoubtedly have the same meaning as the words `according to the law of the land` in the Magna Carta.”  More than 500 years later, after the American Revolution, legislators were inspired by Magna Carta and imitated its „law of the land” language. Versions of this can be found in the Virginia Constitution of 1776, the North Carolina Constitution of 1776, the Delaware Constitution of 1776, the Maryland Constitution of 1776, the New York Constitution of 1777, the South Carolina Constitution of 1778, the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780,  and the New Hampshire Constitution of 1784.  In 1787, the Continental Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance for the Administration of Territories in the United States. States outside individual states. Congress wrote: „No one shall be deprived of liberty or property except by the judgment of his colleagues or by the law of the land.” After the adoption of the United States Constitution, Congress reenacted the Northwest Ordinance in 1789.  Due process in the [Fourteenth Amendment] refers to the law of the land in each state, which derives its authority from the inherent and reserved powers of the state exercised within the limits of the fundamental principles of liberty and justice that underpin all our civil and political institutions.
And the greatest security lies in the right of the people to make their own laws and change them at will. English jurists who have written about legem terrae in relation to Magna Carta have explained that this term includes all laws currently in force in a jurisdiction.